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Geography

Aims

  • Develop contextual knowledge of the location of globally significant places – both terrestrial and marine – including their significant physical and human characteristics
  • Understand the processes that give rise to key physical and human geographical features of the world, how these are interdependent and how they bring about special variation and change over time
  • Collect, analyse and use a range of data that deepen their understanding of geographical processes
  • Interpret a range of sources of geographical information, including maps, diagrams, globes and aerial photographs
  • Communicate geographical information in a variety of ways, including through maps, numerical and quantative skills and writing at length

Key Stage 1 Subject Content

Pupils should develop knowledge about the world, the UK and their own locality. They should understand basic vocabulary relating to human and physical geography and begin to use geographical skills including first hand observation, to enhance their local awareness.

Locational knowledge

Name and locate the world’s seven continents and five oceans

Name, locate and identify characteristics of the four countries and capital cities of the UK and its surrounding seas

Place knowledge

Understand geographical similarities and differences through studying the human and physical geography of a small area of the UK and of a small area in a contrasting non-European country

Human and physical geography

Identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the UK and the location of hot and cold areas of the world in relation to the Equator and the North and South Poles

Use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to:

Key physical features, including: beach, cliff, coast, forest, hill, mountain, sea, ocean, river, soil, valley, vegetation, season and weather, key human features, including: city, town, village, factory, farm, house, office, port, harbour and shop

Geographical skills and fieldwork

Use world maps, atlases and globes to identify the UK and its countries as well as the countries, continents and oceans studied at this key stage

Use simple compass directions (NSEW) and directional knowledge (near, far, left, right, centre) to describe the location of features and routes on a map

Use aerial photographs and plan perspectives to recognise landmarks and basic human and physical features; devise a simple map and use and construct basic symbols in a key

Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to study the geography of their school and its grounds and the key human and physical features of its surrounding environment

Key Stage 2 Subject Content

Pupils should extend their knowledge and understanding beyond the local area to include the UK and Europe, North and South America. This will include the location and characteristics of a range of the world’s most significant human and physical features. They should develop their use of geographical knowledge, understanding and skills to enhance their locational and place knowledge.

Locational knowledge

Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe (including the location of Russia) and North and South America, concentrating on their environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries and major cities

Name and locate counties and cities of the UK, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, key topological features (including hills, mountains, coasts, valleys and rivers), and land-use patterns. Understand how some of these aspects have changed over time

Identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Arctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones (including day and night)

Place knowledge

Understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the UK, a region in a European country and a region within North or South America

Human and physical geography

Describe and understand key aspects of physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes and the water cycle

Describe and understand key aspects of human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water

Geographical skills and fieldwork

Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features studied

Use the eight points of a compass, four and six figure grid references, symbols and keys (including the use of OS maps) to build their knowledge of the UK and the wider world

Use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies.